The sewing machine is a useful device when taken proper care it can be used for many years. Apparel making is one of the important elements of fashion designing. The skill of making garments can be full filled by this important technical machine.
The rate of production making garment is perfume efficiently by this technical machine so it is an important machine for fashion designers, skill labor and those who are interested to do work with the fashion designer. A decent sewing machine is required to acquire quality items.
Sewing machines are available commercially in different models, such as domestic model, tailor model, industrial model, portable and electronic model.
Table of Contents
- 1 History of Sewing Machine
- 2 Types of Sewing Machine
- 3 Parts and Functions of Sewing Machine
- 4 Sewing Machine Fault
- 5 Care and Maintenance of Sewing Machine
History of Sewing Machine
A sewing machine is utilized to line texture together with string. Sewing machines were a development of the modern insurgency that made it conceivable to sew quicker than individuals could sew by hand. Some sewing machines are likewise utilized for weaving.
Since the innovation of the principal working sewing machine, for the most part considered to have been crafted by Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790, the sewing machine has significantly improved the effectiveness and profitability of the garments business. Sewing is an innovative and intriguing aptitude. The information of sewing gives a certain inclination when it is connected to the development of pieces of clothing.
The prior technique for sewing by hand isn’t appropriate for all phases of an article of clothing making. In this manner, significant accentuation is given to machine sewing. There are a few machines in the market today, each with its very own alluring highlights and focal points.
Sewing machines run from most fundamental having just straightforward lock line to the electronic machines that utilization propelled PC innovation having different capacities for instance channelling, authoritative, unsettling, creasing, darning, sewing and notwithstanding making buttonholes and connecting latches.
A decent sewing machine is required to acquire quality items. One must be comfortable with the attributes of various sorts of machines for choosing fitting machine, contingent on the capacity and necessities of the individual.
Types of Sewing Machine
Sewing machines are presently accessible in different models, for Ex, Hand-operated sewing machine, Treadle sewing machine, Electric sewing machine, convenient and cabinet models. They might be worked by hand, treadle or electric motor.
Hand-operated Sewing Machine
This is straightforward from of sewing machine which is worked by hand. A separable handle gave to the flywheel is utilized to work the machine. This machine is commonly appropriate for local reason since it doesn’t help in accelerating the work.
Treadle Sewing Machine
A treadle sewing machine is exactly like a hand sewing machine, but it is operated by paddle or foot, using an additional stand. In this machine, the balance wheel is operated wheel is worked by a belt with the assistance of a lower stand, which is driven by feet. This machine is affordable where there is no power supply.
Electric Sewing Machine
This is the fastest sewing machine. One needs practice to deal with it. In an electric machine the equalization wheel comes to movement by a belt, which is connected to an electric engine.
Parts and Functions of Sewing Machine
The basic structure of sewing machine is comparative whether it is hand-worked sewing, treadle sewing machine or electric sewing machine. The principal bits of sewing are recorded underneath and found in fig.
The fundamental structure of sewing machine is similar whether it is hand-operated sewing, treadle sewing machine or electric sewing machine. The fundamental pieces of sewing are recorded underneath and found in fig.
- Spool pin: It is fitted on the highest point of the arm to hold the reel.
- Thread guide: It is a little gap made of spring wire through which string runs straightforwardly to needle.
- Tension disc: The two ward plates set up together with the raised sides confronting one another, form the pressure circle. The string goes between the two. The strain of the string is balanced by a spring and nut which increments or diminishes pressure.
- Take up lever: It is lever fitted to the body of the arm with a small hole through which the thread passes. Its up and down motion feeds the thread to the needle and tightens the loop formed by the shuttle and loosening the top thread to complete the stitch.
- Needle bar: This is a steel bar to hold the needle toward one side with the assistance of a clamp. Its main function is to offer movement to the needle.
- Bobbin case: This moves into position to get the top string and form the stitch, as the needle is lowered in to the bobbin chamber.
- Presser foot: It is fixed to the presser bar to hold the material solidly in position when brought down.
- Presser foot lifter: A switch connected to the presser bar for raising and bringing down the presser foot.
- Stitch regulator: this controls the length of the stitch.2.5 to 3 for regular stitch length stitch regular kept on 2.5 to 3 and for big stitch regulator kept on 5 As well as for small stitch regulator kept in 0 to 2 and maintains the stitch length. This controls the length of fasten. A few controllers can join backward.
- Bobbin winder: A straightforward instrument utilized for winding thread on the bobbin.
- Fly wheel: when this is made to rotate, it works the system of the movement.
- Clutch or thumb screw: This is in the center point of the fly wheel draws in and withdraws the sewing system. 13 Slide plate: A rectangular plate, which encourages the expulsion of the bobbin case without lifting the machine.
- Needle plate or throat plate: A semi-round about circle with an opening to enable the needle to go through it.
- Feed dog: This comprises of a lot of teeth fitted beneath the needle plate. It pushes the fabric ahead while sewing.
- Face plate: this is a cover which when removed gives access to the oiling points on needle bar, presser bar and thread take-up lever.
- Spool pin for bobbin winding: spool of string is put on this at the season of bobbin winding.
- Pedal: it is made out of iron. When pressing this with foot, the machine works.
Sewing Machine Fault
Below are the some of the major sewing machine fault and some of the ways to correct them:
- Spool thread breaks
- Machine does not stitch
- Fabric puckers and the threads get pulled
- Stitch length is not consistent
- Needle skips stitches
- Needle bends or breaks
Spool thread breaks
The spool thread breaks if the tension is too tight or if the thread is low quality. If the spool thread breaks at the eye of the needle, it must have been thread from the wrong side of the needle or the needle fixed incorrectly.
Machine does not stitch
This happens when the thread is twist around the bobbin. Move the balance wheel back and forth to release the thread. Lift the throat plate and remove the entangled thread. Brush off all the lint and replace the bobbin and make sure that the thread slides out through the bobbin clamp.
Fabric puckers and the threads get pulled
The needle is blunt and needs to be changed.
Stitch length is not consistent
The stitch length varies when the fabric is pulled intermittently. It is important to guide the cloth with a light hand.
Needle skips stitches
This happens if the needle has been placed too high or too low in the needle bar. Check the needle position. The newer models of the sewing machine do not have this problem since the slot in which the needle is inserted is of a fixed size. In case the fault is difficult to handle, it is advisable to consult a competent mechanic.
Needle bends or breaks
The fabric may have been pulled with the needle in it causing it to bend. The bent needle strikes the metal plate around it and breaks. Remembers to lift the needle above the surface of the cloth by turning the handwheel before pulling out the fabric.
Care and Maintenance of Sewing Machine
A sewing machine needs care for its smooth running. It should be cleaned and oiled regularly to ensure satisfactory sewing and long life. When not in use, your machine should be covered to prevent dust accumulation on it.
Use a small dry brush or old toothbrush and a soft cloth to remove dust and lint. You should always remove lint deposits, dust and thread bits before oiling any part of the machine. Use a pointed instrument like a needle to pick out the bits of thread and lint that cannot be brushed out.
It is necessary to oil and lubricate the machine periodically. If the machine is used every day, oil and place a piece of folded fabric under the presser foot to absorb any excess oil. To oil thoroughly, remove the upper thread, needle plate, slide plate, faceplate, bobbin case, needle and presser foot. Oil the holes on the underside. Use only a few drops of oil in each hole. Never use coconut oil. Machine oil of different brands may be used as recommended in the instruction book.
If the machine becomes gummed with oil, put a drop of kerosene or petrol in each oil hole and joints and run it rapidly for several minutes. Wipe off and re-oil it with machine oil. The motor of electric sewing machine should be greased periodically.
Utilize a little dry brush or old toothbrush and delicate fabric to expel residue and build up. You ought to consistently evacuate build up stores, residue and string bits before oiling any piece of the machine. Use a pointed instrument like a needle to pick out the bits of thread and lint that cannot be brushed out.
It is important to oil and grease up the machine occasionally. If the machine is used every day, oil it once every week. After oiling, clean off the surplus oil and place a piece of folded fabric under the presser foot to absorb any excess oil. To oil completely, remove the upper string, needle plate, slide plate, faceplate, bobbin case, needle and presser foot.
Oil the gaps on the underside first, in the wake of cleaning and after that continue to the upper side. Utilize just a couple of drops of oil in each opening. Never use coconut oil. Machine oil of various brands might be utilized for various models of a sewing machine, yet ought to be utilized as prescribed in the guidance book.
If the machine ends up gummed with oil, put a drop of lamp oil or oil in each oil opening and joints and run it quickly for a few minutes. Wipe off and re-oil it with machine oil. The engine of electric sewing machine ought to be lubed intermittently.